Mind over Chatter: Essential Skills for Navigating the Post-Truth Era

Mind over Chatter: Essential Skills for Navigating the Post-Truth Era is a series of six interactive, Canvas-based learning modules designed specifically for first-year college students and aimed at curbing the spread of problematic information in our time. Made possible by a generous grant from the Rita Allen Foundation and RTI International, these modules can be dropped into any course at almost any level.

Grounded in cognitive psychology and reflective pedagogy, this digital intervention provides students with a fluid set of digital skills, habits, and a basic working knowledge of how to navigate the web and social media, as well as recognize information that is false, misleading, inaccurate, manipulated, or improperly-framed. Students also learn about the complexities of information-gathering and exploration in a digital environment where information and media are abundant and cheap, while attention is rare and much more expensive.

Imminently practical and self-contained, the following six modules may be completed in order or as stand-alone activities in virtually any course or discipline. Each module takes approximately 20 to 30 minutes to complete.

The six modules in Mind over Chatter are available now for free download or import in the Canvas Commons and IU Expand. We also encourage you to download and read the Mind over Chatter teaching manual, a document that includes a wealth of collaborative activities, writing projects, discussion prompts, and other materials to introduce students to the complexities of media and mindful information-gathering in the post-digital era.

The six modules are as follows:

  1. Initiation into MoC: This module is a general overview of the nature of knowledge, facts, and truth, and how higher education works to help students form an understanding of truth in a world full of complex information and diverse perspectives.
  2. Framing Effects: This module introduces students to the elements of messaging, persuasion, and rhetoric that shape our understandings of the world.
  3. Paradox of Authority: This module explains the relationship between knowledge and trust of authorities/experts, and how that can both help and hinder our comprehension of reality.
  4. Mere Exposure Effect: This module introduces students to a psychological phenomenon that influences what we believe and how we become committed to certain beliefs, ideas, and assumptions.
  5. Confirmation Bias: This module engages students in an interactive activity meant to reveal how our brains form rapid understandings and then work to preserve those understandings in the face of both confirming and disconfirming or even contrary evidence.
  6. Mindfulness, Media, and Misinformation: This module helps students understand how mindfulness, reflection, and simple web-based search techniques can help them guard against skewed, incomplete, misleading, improperly framed, or inaccurate beliefs about reality.

In the classroom, experienced writing instructors and trained peer instructors guide students in discussion, reflection, and exploration of the concepts and skills showcased in the modules. We are currently piloting Mind over Chatter in first-year writing courses (ENG-W 131) because of their focus on critical reading and literacy as students develop as academic writers, researchers, and responsible users of information. In Fall 2020, we plan to expand MoC to all sections of first-year writing at IU Kokomo.

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Indiana University Kokomo Mind over Chatter Team

Polly Boruff-Jones, MLS, MPA, is Dean of the Library at IU Kokomo. She is focused on engaging with students to understand their approach to research and information gathering. A five-time recipient of the Indiana University Trustees Teaching Award, she has taught information literacy skills and concepts to students at all college levels. With an interest in mitigating the challenges of the high school to college transition, she especially enjoys working with students who are new to the college experience and has taught freshman seminar courses at three universities.

Hannah Bourne is a senior double majoring in history and political science and public communication. After graduating from IU Kokomo in May 2020, she plans to pursue a PhD in history with the intention of becoming a professor. She aspires to build a career focused on research, teaching, and mentoring students. Throughout her time at IU Kokomo, Hannah has been involved in a variety of student organizations, including serving as President and Vice President of the Student Government Association. Currently, she is involved in an internship with the Dean of the School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Dr. Eric Bain-Selbo, to create a lifelong learning program at IU Kokomo. Hannah is a student worker for the Director of Alumni Relations and Campus Ceremonies, a Student Liaison for the IU Kokomo Honors Program, and a Peer Mentor at IU Kokomo.

Mark Canada, PhD, is Executive Vice Chancellor for Academic Affairs and Professor of English. A former journalist, he has written extensively on the intersections of literature and journalism, particularly competition over ways to tell the truth. His five books include Literature and Journalism in Antebellum America (Palgrave Macmillan, 2011) and Introduction to Information Literacy for Students (Wiley, 2017). His work on the present truth crisis has been featured in The Conversation, The Academic Minute, and other venues. In July, he co-presented “Beyond ‘Fake News’: Framing the Next Decade of Higher Education’s Fight Against Misinformation,” the opening plenary address for AASCU’s Summer Academic Affairs Meeting.

Paul Cook, PhD, is Associate Professor of English and Director of Writing at IU Kokomo. He oversees all first-year writing, writing in the disciplines, and writing-intensive courses at the institution. He also has taught an undergraduate course specifically on misinformation and the post-truth crisis, as well as a special topics graduate course on the intersections of misinformation, media, and mindfulness in the digital era. He is co-chair (with Dean Boruff-Jones) of the campus team working on the Digital Polarization project, sponsored by the American Association of State Colleges and Universities.

Christina Downey, PhD, is Professor of Psychology and Associate Vice Chancellor for Academic Affairs and Student Success at IU Kokomo. She oversees the university’s student-success initiatives and resources, including New Student Orientation, first-year experiences, and instruction in growth mindset. An award-winning teacher, she has published numerous articles and books, including Positive Psychology in Racial and Ethnic Groups, published by the American Psychological Association.

Mary Kennelly is an adjunct instructor of English at IU Kokomo. In addition to her composition courses, she enjoys providing motorcycle safety instruction via ABATE of Indiana as well as teaching music classes at a local primary school. She also works as a counselor at Birthright of Kokomo, a crisis pregnancy center.

Noah Sababu is a junior at IU Kokomo who is majoring in history with a minor in sociology. After completing his undergraduate degree he intends to become an academic historian with a focus on cultural studies. Alongside his strong academic career, he is an active member of IU Kokomo’s student community and a member of IU Kokomo’s Black Student Union. He was hired as a Peer Mentor for the Mind Over Chatter grant which will have him work directly with incoming college freshmen to practice mindfulness and combat misinformation by honing their critical thinking skills to analyze arguments through various news media.

Kristen Snoddy, senior lecturer in English at IU Kokomo, teaches both freshman composition and literature courses. She is also the director of Freshman Learning Communities. Kristen participated in the fall of 2018 Digital Polarization Initiative (DigiPo) and is also an engaged citizen through volunteerism in her local community.

Aaron Stanley is pursuing a BA in communications with minors in both philosophy and political science at Indiana University Kokomo. After completing his undergraduate degree, he plans to complete a doctorate program in communications before pursuing a career as a political analyst. Aaron enjoys traveling when he is not working as a facilitator at Elite Banquet & Conference Center, a server at Windmill Grill, and a peer mentor at IU Kokomo.

Martha Warner, MA in Liberal Studies, is an adjunct instructor of communications and English at Indiana University Kokomo. She has been teaching at various levels for over twelve years after earning her BA in English from IU Kokomo. A member of the Indiana University Alumni Association Kokomo Region Board, Martha is actively engaged on campus and in the community. In addition to her role at IU Kokomo, she is a private contractor who writes curriculum, articles and grants, designs and maintains websites, and edits projects and written works.

Michelle Westervelt, MA in English, is a lecturer in English at Indiana University Kokomo. She teaches both composition and literature courses. Additionally, she teaches First Year Experience courses and is actively involved in the Freshman Learning Communities as well as other student success initiatives. Michelle is Director of the Indiana University Kokomo Writing Center and serves on the editorial board for Burningword.com, an international online literary journal. Michelle has been with the university for more than ten years, a full-time lecturer for the past five.

Updated April 13, 2020 at 9:39am EDT.

 

2019 FAR Executive Summary

At Indiana University, the “FAR” is an acronym that stands for “Faculty Annual Report”–or “Faculty Activity Report,” I’ve never been quite sure. Either way, it is a fairly straightforward and familiar bureaucratic mechanism for keeping tabs and marking faculty labor and activities throughout the year.

Here is the executive summary of my FAR from calendar year 2019.

Introduction

In 2019, I doubled down on my interests in exploring digital distraction and co-hosted a symposium, “Mindfulness, Media, and Misinformation in the Digital Era,” with Dean Polly Boruff-Jones. Mike Caulfield of Washington State University-Vancouver delivered our keynote address and led a fantastic workshop on his “SIFT” technique for teaching digital literacy. I also made four research presentations; of these four, two were at national flagship conferences (LOEX and CCCC) and one was at an invitation-only gathering of scholars, non-profit leaders, and policy-makers at the independent think-tank RTI International in Research Triangle, NC. While building and then teaching a brand-new online graduate-level course for the systemwide collaborative MA in the spring, I also appeared on stage in the IU Kokomo production of West Side Story. Working with Dr. Erin Doss, I co-led six Table Talks events (one off-campus), wrote nearly a dozen letters of recommendation, observed three of my colleagues’ classes, and managed the writing program with its nearly twenty faculty. Starting on August 1, I assumed the role of President of Faculty Senate.

Below I have highlighted a few of my key accomplishments in three areas: teaching, research, and service. Please note that this is not a comprehensive list of activities. I have only listed those achievements that I felt were significant enough to warrant inclusion in an Executive Summary. A comprehensive record of my annual activities can be found in the Digital Measures (i.e., FAR) report online. Second, these achievements are not listed in chronological order, but rather loosely in order of significance and merit. All items below were completed between January 1 and December 31, 2019.

Teaching

  • Over the summer of 2019, the “Mind over Chatter” team from IU Kokomo (VCAA Mark Canada, AVCAA Christina Downey, and Dean Polly Boruff-Jones) wrote and edited six Canvas modules for our grant-winning project sponsored by the Rita Allen Foundation’s Misinformation Solutions Forum. I wrote the bulk of module six and provided editing and feedback on the other five modules. The modules can be accessed at the following link: https://iu.instructure.com/courses/1848795. I also wrote and edited significant portions of the Mind over Chatter Teaching Manual (also located in the MoC Canvas site).
  • In August, I began overseeing the “Mind over Chatter” pilot sections of ENG-W with three instructors and three peer instructors. This grant-funded pilot project requires screening, interviewing, hiring, and training peer instructors to work as teaching assistants in a first-year writing class that integrates the MoC modules, as well as meeting regularly with the teams and developing and implementing assessment measures.
  • We continued our popular series Table Talks at IU Kokomo with five Table Talks events and a KEY trip to Bloomington, Indiana. Our theme for AY 2019-20 is “#Resistance,” and in 2019 we tackled the topics “Art as Resistance” in February, “The Limits of Science and Technology” in March, “Food Insecurity and Hunger in America” in September, “Losing Ground: Economic Insecurity in the 21st Century” in October, and “Digital Security: Truth and Lies in the Misinformation Age” in November. Each of these discussions featured faculty members from across campus who spoke to the issues at hand, while also engaging with students, answering questions and debating ideas. We served lunch to all who attended and enjoyed a healthy number of participants, with as many as sixty attendees at some events. In addition to the on-campus events, we received KEY funds to take Table Talks to Bloomington, where we learned about the slow food movement and ate lunch at Farm Bloomington, a restaurant focused on providing local food and environmental sustainability, among other topics and activities.
  • In 2019, I conducted and wrote three teaching observations for colleagues in the School of Humanities and Social Sciences. I also wrote nine letters of recommendation for colleagues as well as current and former students (i.e., recent graduates from IU Kokomo).
  • In August, I taught for the fifth consecutive year in the KEY Summer Institute (formerly the Summer Bridge Program), a one-week academic orientation program that helps entering first-year college students become better acquainted with the rigors of college and college-level habits of mind. AVCAA Christina Downey and Academic Affairs have been keeping rigorous data on the retention rates and academic success of KSI students for several years now, and the data suggest that the KSI students have high rates of both retention and persistence towards degree.
  • I developed and taught one new course, which was a graduate-level, special topics course in rhetoric and composition studies (ENG-W 600: Special Topics in R/C) for the new collaborative MA in English degree. Based on my interests in mindfulness and misinformation, this course allowed me to develop a curriculum that traced the intersections between mindfulness, writing, and the technology of the word. I received several highly-positive, unsolicited remarks from students on this course. My course evaluations overall continue to be strongly positive—some are stellar. Please note that the course evaluations for both ENG-W 600 (Special Topics in Rhetoric and Composition) in the summer and ENG-L 495 (Senior Seminar in English) in the fall were not released because the reporting threshold for the course was not met. Finally, note also that only one student of fourteen possible responded to the course evaluations for ENG-W 500 in the spring.
  • In December, I presented at the CTLA’s 20/20 on Teaching and Research with Yan He on digital literacy strategies in the classroom.

Research

  • In September 2019, along with my co-organizer Dean Polly Boruff-Jones, I developed and hosted a well-attended symposium entitled, “Mindfulness, Media, and Misinformation in the Digital Era” at IU Kokomo. The one-day symposium drew scholars, librarians, and teachers from all over the US to talk about how mindfulness can be a useful pedagogical tool in the era of digital distraction and distortion. Mike Caulfield, who speaks routinely to national audiences on issues of misinformation and the media, was our keynote speaker and workshop leader.
  • In March of 2019, I traveled to Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania to present a research poster at the flagship conference of my discipline, the Conference on College Composition and Communication, or “the four Cs,” as it is more commonly known. The poster, entitled “Revising Is Reading Is Performing: Metacognitive Reading Strategies in Writing-Centered Classrooms,” was the result of a joint research project with my colleague, Dr. Jill Parrott of Eastern Kentucky University. The poster was well-received throughout the course of the afternoon and we talked with at least a dozen curious scholars and teachers about our work.
  • In May, I traveled to LOEX in Minneapolis, Minnesota (May 2019). This is the largest conference in the field of library science and, as such, the proposal acceptance rate is highly competitive. Despite its enormous attendance, LOEX organizers keep the concurrent panels few and far between and there seems to be a general expectation that attendees show up for panels; the result is that a panel may end up (as we did) with well over one hundred people in attendance. Our presentation, “Combating Digital Polarization: Teaching Undergraduates Web Literacy Using ‘Four Moves and a Habit,’” was cited by the conference organizers to be the second-highest attended panel of this year’s LOEX. An essay version of our presentation was later published in the LOEX 2019 conference proceedings.
  • In February 2019, I traveled to Western Kentucky University to present “Cross-campus Collaboration Enhances Summer Bridge: The KEY Summer Institute” with AVCAA Christina Downey, Tracy Springer, and Dr. Beau Shine. This presentation took place at HIPs in the States, an annual conference on high-impact practices in higher education. In 2019, I also began serving on the conference review team for proposals.
  • In July, I traveled to the Research Triangle in North Carolina with VCAA Mark Canada to present a progress report on our work for “Mind over Chatter” to a gathering of scholars, CEOs, and policy-makers hosted by RTI International. Our panel spoke to the issue of communications technologies and trust in the digital era.

Service

  • In August of 2019, I began my first term as President of Faculty Senate. A few of our most significant projects from late 2019 include implementing the new Teaching Professor criteria, surveying faculty on service loads, and tackling the issue of declining summer enrollments. In my role as Faculty Senate President, I also serve as Chair of the Budgetary Affairs committee, which will report on their work so far this year at the Budget Hearings in mid-February 2020, and the Regional Faculty Council (RFC) and University Faculty Council (UFC).
  • I began my sixth year as Director of Writing at IU Kokomo. In 2019, I focused on the following tasks and strategic priorities: (1) further training and developing our adjunct faculty, which includes hosting our annual summer workshop on teaching, working one-on-one with adjunct faculty on their course syllabi and assignments, conducting classroom observations of teaching, researching best practices, distributing announcements, materials, and tutorials; (2) promoting ENG-W 221 and meeting frequently with faculty and advisors to help guide students into the right sections of the course; (3) working with Academic Affairs to develop a New Student Intake Survey form to try to identify students who may need ESL or basic writing help; (4) developing the “second edition” of our Writing Program Handbook for AY 2019-20 (with Prof. Kristen Snoddy), which includes a helpful “New Semester Checklist” document for all faculty who teach ENG-W 131/132/221, sample syllabi, assignments, handouts, worksheets, contact rosters, and other materials (in the Files tab at https://iu.instructure.com/courses/1418911) and also in IU Box at https://iu.app.box.com/folder/47024392359; (5) developing appropriate assessment measures to evaluate program-wide student learning, including an ongoing collaborative research project on information literacy assessment with Yan He in the library; and (6) participating in off-campus initiatives related to writing, including presenting at the national Conference on College Composition and Communication nearly every year.
  • For the second full year I continued my service as Reviews Editor of the online WAC/WID journal Across the Disciplines. In 2019, I oversaw the publication of five book reviews.
  • In late 2019, I served on a promotion and tenure committee/dossier review for Michael Koerner and his promotion to Associate Professor of Art and New Media.
  • Starting in late fall of 2018, I was appointed as co-chair of Joe Keener’s Administrative Review Committee. We completed our work on this committee in mid-February 2019, and received a written commendation (via email) from Prof. Bridget Whitmore, Chair of the Administrative Review Committee for Faculty Senate.

Digital Info Literacy & Online Learning in a Pandemic

“The professor’s role in this new digital learning environment is not to play the role of the master of content; it is to be the master of resourcefulness. In this role, the teacher models how to think in the face of an endless torrent of information.” Richard E. Miller, “On Digital Reading,” Pedagogy, 2016, vol. 16, issue 1, pp. 153-64.

Driving 600+ miles to South Carolina yesterday gave me ample time to reflect on useful, open-access web resources that instructors from a wide variety of disciplines and academic backgrounds can use over the next two weeks however long of remote teaching and general societal uncertainty.

First, a few definitions that may be helpful to keep in mind:

  • digital (information) literacy: “Digital literacy is the ability to use information and communication technologies to find, evaluate, create, and communicate digital information, an ability that requires both cognitive and technical skills.” (Ellen C. Carillo, MLA Guide to Digital Literacy, 2019.)
  • reading laterally (or “lateral reading”): Coined by educators Sam Wineburg and Sarah McGrew, lateral reading describes an approach to reading in which one “leaves a website and opens new tabs along a horizontal axis in order to use the resources of the Internet to learn about a site or its claims” (Wineburg and McGrew, “Lateral Reading: Reading Less and Learning More When Evaluating Digital Information,” 2017). Examples include using Wikipedia to investigate a source or performing a reverse Google image search to find the origin of a suspicious-looking pic or meme.
  • problematic information: A catch-all or umbrella term that includes all forms of information considered to be problematic or manipulated in some form or fashion. Examples include misinformation, disinformation, mal-information, propaganda, improperly- or misleadingly-framed news stories, “fake news,” manipulated media or memes, information warfare, spamming, jamming, deepfakes, cheap fakes, and even some forms of advertisement. For a quick glossary of these terms that would be excellent to share with students, check out Caroline Jack’s “Lexicon of Lies: Terms for Problematic Information.”

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Now for the resources. The list below includes only materials I’ve personally vetted, viewed, and/or used in a classroom context.

Sifting Through the Coronavirus Pandemic  (Washington State University Vancouver)

The resources on this site use the SIFT method of digital fact-checking developed by Mike Caulfield to engage students in parsing out fact, fiction, and farce in the face of the coronavirus/COVID-19 pandemic. You can use these resources as a standalone introduction to SIFT or as a supplement to other materials. These are also a great start to examining the epistemological issues related to the pandemic.

“A Handy List of Reputable Coronavirus Information” (Melissa Ryan, Medium.com)

This curated post includes links to sources of reputable information like the CDC and the WHO as well as a smattering of resources for detecting and debunking misinformation online, such as Media Matters, FirstDraft Resources for Reporters, and more.

Mind over Chatter: Skills for Navigating the Post-Truth Era (Indiana University Kokomo)

Available in the Canvas Commons: search for “Mind over Chatter” if the above hyperlink doesn’t work properly. 

Mind over Chatter is a series of six interactive, Canvas-based learning modules designed specifically for first-year college students but useful for students at any level. Grounded in cognitive psychology and reflective pedagogy, this digital intervention provides students with a set of digital skills, habits, and a basic working knowledge of how to navigate web and ferret out problematic information in all its subtle and multifarious forms. Imminently practical and self-contained, the six modules that make up MoC may be completed in order or as stand-alone, roughly twenty- to thirty-minute activities.

The six modules in Mind over Chatter include

  1. Initiation into MoC: This module is a general overview of the nature of knowledge, facts, and truth, and how higher education works to help students form an understanding of truth in a world full of complex information and diverse perspectives.
  2. Framing Effects: This module introduces students to the elements of messaging, persuasion, and rhetoric that shape our understandings of the world
  3. Paradox of Authority: This module sets the table for the others in that it explores the relationship between knowledge and trust of authorities and experts, as well as how our shared epistemological reliance on information can both help and hinder our comprehension of reality.
  4. Mere Exposure Effect: This module explores with students a psychological phenomenon that influences what we believe and how committed we become to certain beliefs.
  5. Confirmation Bias: This module engages students in an interactive activity meant to reveal how our brains form rapid understandings of things and then work to preserve those understandings in the face of both confirming and disconfirming evidence.
  6. Mindfulness, Media, and Misinformation: This modules helps students understand how mindfulness, reflection, and simple web-based search techniques can help them guard against skewed, incomplete, misleading, improperly framed, or inaccurate beliefs about reality

Click here for information on accessing Canvas Commons and importing materials.

Check, Please! Starter Course (Michael Caulfield, Washington State University Vancouver)

Check, Please! is a three-hour online module on source and fact-checking that can be dropped into any course or taken as a self-study experience. Designed and developed by Mike Caulfield, the godfather of web literacy and fact-checking as well as author of the open-access textbook Web Literacy for Student Fact-Checkers, the activities in this set of modules are top-notch and can easily be adapted to virtually any course, any focus, any discipline. Don’t just take my word for it. You can read reviews of Mike’s work on this page at his highly readable and useful blog.

Data & Society is an independent nonprofit research organization that produces original research, reports, and teaching-related documents to support evidence-based public debate about emerging technology. The podcast page is chock full of useful podcasts students can listen to and then engage in debate and discussion via online discussion boards.

Truth Decay: An Initial Exploration of Diminishing Role of Facts and Analysis in American Public Life (Rand Corporation, Jennifer Kavanagh and Michael D. Rich)

This report from Rand explores the causes and consequences of what the authors term “Truth Decay” and how they are interrelated, and examines past eras of US history to identify evidence of Truth Decay’s four trends and observe similarities with and differences from the current period. It also outlines a research agenda, a strategy for investigating the causes of Truth Decay and determining what can be done to address its causes and consequences.

Truth Decay is defined as a set of four related trends: increasing disagreement about facts and analytical interpretations of facts and data; a blurring of the line between opinion and fact; an increase in the relative volume, and resulting influence, of opinion and personal experience over fact; and declining trust in formerly respected sources of factual information.

In the context of a public pandemic like the coronavirus, some of these readings may prove useful with students, particularly in terms of giving them a vocabulary with which to analyze and discuss distrust of media in the post-truth era.

Four Moves: Adventures in Fact-Checking for Students (Michael Caulfield, WSU Vancouver)

Sometimes you have great ideas for exercises related to problematic information, but you don’t have time to scour the web for prompts. Luckily, at this blog, that work has been done for you. Introduce students to “the four moves” and/or “SIFT,” then ask students to pick a prompt, analyze it using the moves, and report back on what they find.

At this link you can find four videos from 2018 that introduce students to the four moves and a habit method of fact-checking on the web.

SIFT: Stop, Investigate the Source, Find Better Coverage, Trace Claims to Original Source

Also developed by Mike Caulfield, SIFT replaces the original four moves as a quick and easy-to-internalize heuristic for fact-checking on the web.

The New York Times coronavirus/COVID-19 coverage

So, there are a couple of caveats to the NYTimes‘ free coronavirus coverage (i.e., you have to first set up a free account with NYTimes.com and the articles are limited to those deemed most essential by the editorial board), but it’s still useful in a classroom setting; plus, most universities and colleges, like mine, offer free, full access to NYTimes.com.)

Snopes.com

The granddaddy of urban legend fact-checking sites, Snopes has been ferreting out problematic information on the web since 1994.

PolitiFact.com

Recipient of a Pulitzer Prize, this fact-checking website uses its patented “Truth-o-Meter” to rate the accuracy of statements made by politicians and other public figures as true, mostly true, half true, mostly false, false, or pants on fire!

FactCheck.org

Published by the University of Pennsylvania’s Annenberg Public Policy Center, this nonpartisan, nonprofit fact-checking website monitors the accuracy of statements made by politicians and others in positions of power.

Media Matters for America 

Launched in 2004, this nonprofit site is openly liberal in its political bias and its commitment to fact-checking “conservative misinformation” (“About”).

News Busters 

This site is a project of the conservative-leaning Media Research Center. Their mission is “to provide immediate exposure of national media bias, unfairness, innaccuracy, and occasional idiocy” (“AboutNewsBusters.org”).

The WayBack Machine

Composed of nearly half a trillion indexed webpages, this site is the archive of the internet. Here you can find screenshots from old and defunct websites going back to the earliest (or corniest) days of the web.

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Last updated at 9:30am EDT, March 26, 2020